THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 247 the privilege of the limited class which was destined to rule in Church and State. " Not the children of the rich or of the poweF-" l| ful only," he insisted, " but of all alike, boys and girls, noble and j) ignoble, rich and poor, in all cities and towns, villages and hamlets, J should be sent to school."* He saw, too, that education could only have its proper effect if account were taken of the nature of the learner. " J^eJea^jeOLt^ r?La?ter °f nature." Instruction must be fitted to the child, not the chSIdTto"^ the instruction.«/ But in working out his scheme of education, Comenius had other predecessors than Luther. The philosophy of life which gives distinctive character to his methods was not derived from Protestant theology, though it had kindred elements, but from the views of various thinkers who had carried the Protestant spirit into science and philosophy in the search for new truth. His dependence on Francis Bacon, the great English representative of this school of thought, is obvious in the reverence for experience which leads him to insist on acquaintance with particular facts always preceding the knowledge of general rules, as well as in the ideal of an assured system of universal knowledge as the goal of learning. His greatest debt, however, was not to Bacon, as he sometimes implies. Bacon was mainly interested in natural facts ; Comenius wished for a system of knowledge which would include both the natural and the supernatural. For the foundations of this more comprehensive system he went to certain Italians like Giordano Bruno and Tomasso Campanella, who combined a mystical idealism with the realism of science ; and the philosophy which underlay his educational work, both on the objective side in his view of the world and on the subjective side in his view of the development of the human soul, is substantially this Italian philosophy. Following its mysticism he thought of the soul of man and the visible universe as a twofold manifestation of deity, and conse- quently in most intimate relations with one another. Man, made in the image of God, comprehends the whole created world in himself: he is the microcosm of the universe. From which it follows that learning is a process of development from within, and not the acquisition of knowledge from without. The soul needs no urging or compulsion in its growth. By its very nature as an * Keatiage, p. 66.